Say What? Ninth Circuit Says Affirmative Defenses Can’t Stop Class Certification Unless Defendant Proves the Merits of the Defense as to Every Single Class MemberJust when you thought litigating Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) class actions was as unsafe as it could get for defendants, the Ninth Circuit said, “Not so fast.”

In McKesson v. True Health, two chiropractic practices sought to represent a class of plaintiffs who allegedly received unsolicited faxes containing advertisements in violation of the

First Circuit Restricts Class Certification of Classes Containing Uninjured PersonsIn recent years, courts have reached divergent conclusions about the circumstances in which a damages class containing uninjured persons can be certified. Although there is some room to debate what constitutes injury, it is well established that individual litigants who have not suffered any injury at all should not recover; after all, injury in

Irrevocable Consent Comes to the Eleventh Circuit: Two District Courts Apply Reyes to Boot TCPA CasesA critical question in Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) cases is whether the plaintiff gave consent to receive communications from the defendant, and whether that consent had been revoked by the time of the communication. Given the problems with the TCPA in general, you would probably not be surprised to learn that the TCPA does